Frameworks of Sustainable Development
Climate change is the failure of the natural mechanism of season variation of the Earth, resulting in rising temperatures and other allied effects. The report prepared by Working Group I of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) analyzed that the use of fossil fuels and mass deforestation for industrialization has led to an increase of twenty-six per cent carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere.
The Special Report on Emission Scenarios prepared by Working Group III of IPCC developed four mark scenarios- A1, A2, B1, and B2. The factors which are driven by these four scenarios are population growth, economic growth pattern, environmental stability, technological change, energy sources, land use pattern, and fossil intensive. The purpose of the marked scenarios was to determine the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). The range of GHG depends on how Low Emission Technologies or Resource-Efficient Technologies are utilized. In this submission, DPSIR Framework by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development will be critically analyzed along with an overview of other policies of Govt. of India.
The DPSIR Framework
The framework is derived from five components; Drivers-Pressure-State-Impact-Response. Drivers are the socio-economic factors that arise from human activities like population growth, urbanization, and industrialization. These drivers cause Pressure on the environment in the form of pollution emissions, which in result affect the State of the environment such as climate extremes, pollution level, and depletion of the ozone layer. The climate extremes Impact the well-being of humans and the planet, resulting in a rise in temperature levels, biodiversity, and climate change. To rectify the State and Impact, a Response is needed in the form of sustainable development using energy-efficient technologies. Hence, the Framework establishes a link between its five components.
The major drawback of the DPSIR framework is that the step of Response comes when significant harm is done. For instance, in the case of melting down of Arctic ice, which is a form of Impact, any response taken cannot reinstate the Arctic ice. There is a need for a policy that serves as Response to Drivers and not the Impact.
The PAT Framework
In 2008, an initiative scheme called Perform Achieve and Trade was taken up by the Bureau of Energy Efficiency under the National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE) (Government of India). The scheme includes several sectors like industries specialized in the production of Iron & Steel, Thermal Power Plant, Cement, Fertilizer, Railways, Refineries, Petrochemical, and Commercial Buildings like hotels as Designated Consumers. The functioning of these industries involves energy in the form of fuel consumption resulting in the release of pollutants in the air. The government of India has set the ceiling for the consumption of such industries. The energy saved by such Consumers, when exceeds their energy-saving target, is issued Energy Saving Certificates (ESCerts) which further can be traded at Indian Energy Exchange (IEX) and Power Exchange India Limited (PXIL). This initiative would encourage the industries in adopting an energy-saving method of production, and the profit incurred in trading ESCerts would be used towards the benefit of workers.
The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)
This framework of 2008 provided for greater success in the era of renewable energy in India. It set out for the National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency, which focused on industry and business sectors for the reduction in energy consumption. The Market Transformation for Energy Efficiency (MTEE) provided a platform to facilitate the interaction between financial institutions and project developers to invest in energy efficiency projects. It is supported by the Framework for Energy Efficient Economic Development (FEEED), which has two financial instruments to leverage financing for energy efficiency. Firstly, the Partial Risk Guarantee Fund for Energy Efficiency (PRGFEE); and secondly, the Venture Capital Fund for Energy Efficiency (VCFEE).
The SATAT Framework
The Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas of India has initiated The Sustainable Alternative Towards Affordable Transportation (SATAT) which aims to set up a compressed biogas plant for automobile fuel usage. SATAT holds great promise for efficient municipal solid waste management and in tackling the problem of air pollution due to farm stubble-burning and carbon emissions.
In light of these frameworks including others like Faster Adoption and Manufacture of (Hybrid) and Electric Vehicles Scheme (FAME) or National Solar mission, it could be concluded that Govt. of India has clearly identified the way to conserve the ecosystem. With the help of these initiatives, the Government is not only conserving the environment but also improving the level of employment in the country as a part of Sustainable Developmental Goals (SDG no- 8).
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Nilika Sett is currently pursuing Law at Lloyd Law College, Greater Noida.
You can contact them at www.linkedin.com/in/nilika-sett-19067370
Edited by: Swathi Ashok Nair
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